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North Penn Business Park,
4500 North Cannon Ave. Lansdale, PA
19446, USA
Tel No.: (267) 436-3991
Fax: (215) 362-5343

CRAIG MILLS:
Email id: cmills@apantec.com
Tel No.:267-436-4034
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Providing Innovative Engineering Solutions for Radiation MonitoringProviding Innovative Engineering Solutions for Radiation Monitoring Providing Innovative Engineering Solutions for Radiation Monitoring
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PET Radiation Monitoring Systems

PET centers require monitoring systems to continuously measure the levels of ambient gamma radiation and airborne radioactive particles. Selected PET center applications may also require monitoring of ambient neutron activity. It is often desirable to integrate the radiation monitoring channels into a single software database for central display and control, as well as data archiving and retention.

Apantec, LLC has designed several standard instruments to meet these monitoring requirements. The design approach focuses on standard modules that are interconnected and configured to meet site specific needs. Each Apantec instrument is provided with an Ethernet port for ease of installation and flexibility. Standard CAT5 communications cable is used for interconnection of the Apantec, LLC devices.

Detectors
Display Units
Auxiliary Instruments
PET System Diagram
 
Detectors
a) DORA Gamma GM Detector
The DORA uses a pair of halogen quenched Geiger-mueller tubes to detect and measure the quantity of ambient gamma radiation. Each gamma photon with sufficient energy that interacts with the Geiger-mueller tube produces an output pulse to the counting circuit. The quantity of output pulses over a unit period of time comprises the measurement of ambient gamma dose rate. The DORA includes the biasing voltage power supply for operation of the detector, the counting circuit for gamma dose rate from the GM sensors, and an Ethernet interface for communication. The DORA operates from low voltage +12 VDC input power. The DORA operates over a temperature range of 0C to 50C, 0-95% relative humidity (non-condensing), and measures a dynamic range of 10 uR/h to 1 R/h. Foldover protection circuitry ensures that the detector will fail upscale upon saturation. The DORA is provided in a stainless steel or environmentally resistant plastic housing and is not sensitive to alpha or beta radiation.
b) SD220N Gamma Scintillation Detector
The SD220N measures gamma radiation using a 2" x 2" NaI crystal optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Each gamma photon with sufficient energy that interacts with the NaI crystal produces an output pulse to the counting circuit. The quantity of output pulses over a unit period of time comprises the measurement of gamma activity. The SD220N includes the biasing voltage power supply for operation of the detector, the counting circuit for measurement of gamma activity from the NaI sensor, a gain stabilization circuit, and an Ethernet interface for communication. The SD220N operates from low voltage +24 VDC input power. The SD220N operates over a temperature range of 0C to 50C, 0-95% relative humidity (non-condensing), and measures a dynamic range of 1 uR/h to 10 mR/h. The SD220N is typically used for channels that measure airborne gamma activity and can be mounted into or adjacent to a duct. The SD220N provides a higher degree of sensitivity than the DORA.
c) BIF1.5 Flow Through Ion Chamber
The preferred detector for measurement of airborne activity levels in ducts is the model BIF1.5 flow through ion chamber. The BIF1.5 is mounted directly into the duct to be monitored in an inline configuration so the process gases flow through the measurement chamber. The chamber is biased using a high voltage power supply which is integral to the detector. Alpha and beta particles that flow through the chamber produce a current across the ion chamber proportional to the energy of the measured particle. This current is integrated and then converted into a pulse form suitable for measurement by the counting circuit.Since incident gamma radiation external to the detector will also produce a current output from the ion chamber detector, an equal volume sealed ion chamber is also included for measurement of gamma background levels. The gamma background level is then subtracted from the output from the flow through chamber to provide a measurement of alpha and beta activity through the chamber. The BIF1.5 includes the flow through ion chamber detector, equal volume sealed gamma background ion chamber detector, biasing power supplies, current-to-frequency converter, counting circuit, and Ethernet interface. The BIF1.5 operates using low voltage 24 VDC input power. The BIF1.5 is suitable for use over a temperature range of 0C to 50C and a humidity of 0-95% RH (non-condensing). The BIF1.5 measures an activity range of 1E-7 uCi/cc to 1E-1 uCi/cc of positron gas activity.
d) NB1 Neutron Detector
The NB1 Neutron Detector measures neutron activity using a BF3 proportional counter contained within a boron impregnated sleeving and tissue equivalent polyethylene moderator. The polyethylene moderator thermalizes the neutrons to allow interaction with the boron contained within the sleeving around the BF3 counter. Each neutron that interacts with the boron sleeving produces a secondary alpha particle, which is subsequently measured by the BF3 counter. The quantity of BF3 pulses over a unit period of time provides a measurement of neutron dose rate. The NB1 includes the biasing voltage power supply for operation of the detector, the counting circuit for neutron dose rate from the BF3 sensor, the polyethylene moderator with boron sleeving, and an Ethernet interface for communication. The NB1 operates from low voltage +24 VDC input power. The NB1 operates over a temperature range of 0C to 50C, 0-95% relative humidity (non-condensing), and measures a dynamic range of 10 uRem/h to 1 Rem/h of neutron activity.
 
Display Units
Display and control of the radiation monitoring channels can be accomplished using either discreet microprocessor based display and control units or using a central database software program. Each Apantec instrument module includes an Ethernet interface, allowing each device to be interconnected using readily available CAT5 communications cable. Each method of display and control is described in the following paragraphs.
a) RM1 Microprocessor Display and Control Unit
The RM1 is a microprocessor based instrument used to display the activity measured by an associated Apantec, LLC detector, and to control operation of the detector channel. Each RM1 can support the display and control of up to three counting channels. The RM1 includes a bit mapped display which provides the reading of activity, as well as indication of alarm setpoint levels and channel status. Numerical data, such as activity readings and alarm setpoints, is displayed in scientific notation and is presented in both digital and analog format. Operators interface with the RM1 using a front panel mounted keypad switch. The keypad switch is security protected so unauthorized individuals do not have access to the channel operating controls. Indicators are provided on the front panel for High Radiation, Alert Radiation and Failure alarm status. Remote alarm annunciation is provided in the form of low voltage/current transistor sinks to ground for operation of external relays. The RM1 provides both analog 4-20 maDC outputs and Ethernet communications for connection to external devices. The RM1 operates from low voltage 24 VDC input power and will operate over a temperature of 0C to 50C and a humidity range of 0-95% RH (non-condensing). The RM1 is housed in a rugged NEMA12 enclosure suitable for benchtop use or wall mounting.

b) RA100 Radiation Alarm Module

The RA100 is used for remote annunciation of alarm status from an associated RM1 display and control unit. It is often desirable to provide an alarm indication at a location other than the display and control device to protect personnel from increased radiation activity levels. The RA100 includes indicators for High radiation, Alert radiation and Fail conditions. A red indicator is illuminated should the measured activity level exceed the established High alarm setpoint. A yellow indicator is illuminated should the measured activity level exceed the established Alert alarm setpoint. A white indicator is illuminated should the measurement channel malfunction in some fashion. An audible alarm is also provided for annunciation of a High radiation alarm condition. The RA100 includes an Ethernet interface for interconnection with an associated RM1 display and control unit or DORIS database software. The RA100 is provided in a NEMA4 rated wall mounted enclosure and will operate in an environment of 0C to 60C and a humidity of 0-98%RH (non-condensing).

c) EPH400 Ethernet Hub

The EPH400 is used to interconnect multiple Apantec instrument modules together to form a complete radiation monitoring system. In the simplest configuration, a single Apantec detector can be connected to an associated RM1 unit or to the DORIS database software using the Ethernet port provided on both the detector and display device. However, if it is desirable to interconnect multiple detectors, alarm units and display units together, then the EPH400 will be required. The EPH400 includes an uplink port to support daisy-chaining of multiple EPH400 units should additional Ethernet ports be needed. Each EPH400 provides four Ethernet ports in addition to the uplink port. The EPH400 operates from 24 VDC input power and is housed in a NEMA wall mount enclosure. The EPH400 will operate over a temperature of 0C to 50C and a humidity of 0-95% RH (non-condensing).
 
Auxiliary Instruments
a) PSM24D Power Supply
The PSM24D is used to convert local 110VAC or 220VAC input power into 24VDC power suitable for operation of the Apantec instrument modules. Each PSM24D also includes a battery backup system for operation of the standard PET31 monitoring system for up to two hours after loss of primary power. The PSM24D is provided in a NEMA12 enclosure and can be either rack mounted or wall mounted. Power to the Apantec instruments modules is interconnected using the PSC4 Power Supply cable.
b) ECC5 Ethernet Communications Cable
Apantec provides CAT5 Ethernet communications cable for use in interconnecting the various Apantec instrument modules. This cable can be purchased from Apantec, LLC on a per foot basis, or may be procured from local suppliers of quality CAT5 communications cable.
c) PSC4 Power Supply Cable
Apantec provides four conductor power supply cable for use in providing operating power to the various Apantec instrument modules. This cable can be purchased from Apantec, LLC on a per foot basis, or may be procured from local suppliers of quality four conductor power supply cable. Apantec will provide the specifications for the required power supply cable is local procurement is desired.
d) DORIS Display and Control Database Software
The instruments developed by Apantec each include Ethernet communications capability, allowing a network of radiation monitoring instruments to be configured without the use of local display and control processing units. The DORIS Display and Control Database Software may be operated with our without the use of the RM1 Display and Control units. The DORIS software provides a bit mapped display of the overall radiation monitoring systems, with active display of the current activity level for each sensor. Separate database pages provide detailed information on a channel-by-channel basis, including trend displays and graphs displaying historical data. A separate alarm/event log is maintained cataloging all events that have occurred for each channel. Under password protection, the monitoring channels may also be controlled from the DORIS software, allowing authorized personnel to modify alarm set points or perform other administrative tasks. The DORIS software operates on a standard IBM-PC compatible computer in a Vista or Windows XP operating system environment.
 
PET System Diagram
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